PsychNology Journal, Volume 7, Number 2, 159 - 173

Scrollable Keyboards for Casual Eye Typing

Oleg Špakov, Päivi Majarant
University of Tampere, Finland



In eye typing, a full on-screen keyboard often takes a lot of space because the inaccuracy in eye tracking requires big keys. We propose “scrollable keyboards” where one or more rows are hidden to save space. Results from an experiment with 8 expert participants show that the typing speed reduced by 51.4% for a 1-row keyboard and 25.3% for a 2-row keyboard compared to a full (3-row) QWERTY. By optimizing the keyboard layout according to letter-to-letter probabilities we were able to reduce the scroll button usage, which further increased the typing speed from 7.26 wpm (QWERTY) to 8.86 wpm (optimized layout) on the 1-row keyboard, and from 11.17 wpm to 12.18 wpm on the 2-row keyboard, respectively.



Eye typing, text entry, eye tracking, gaze input.


Špakov, O. & Majaranta, P. (2009). Scrollable Keyboards for Casual Eye Typing. PsychNology Journal, 7(2), 159 – 173. Retrieved [month] [day], [year], from

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