PsychNology Journal, Volume 9, Number 2, 137 – 163

SQUARELAND: A virtual environment for investigating cognitive processes in human wayfinding

Kai Hamburger, Markus Knauff
Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Science; Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany

We introduce a new virtual environment (VE) called SQUARELAND, consisting of a 10×10 block maze, which allows for all kinds of investigations in human wayfinding. It enables researchers to quickly implement experiments on indoor- and outdoor wayfinding, including variations of route length, route complexity, availability of landmarks, etc. The basic setup was programmed with the freeware GoogleSketchUp®. We would like to invite the spatial cognition community to adopt this standardized and highly controllable research tool or at least parts of it, since this could improve comparability and reproducibility of different effects in wayfinding/navigation. 

KEYWORDS: wayfinding, virtual environment, landmarks, salience, spatial cognition, cognitive maps, learning spatial information, psychology

Hamburger, K., Knauss, M. (2011). SQUARELAND: A virtual environment for investigating cognitive processes in human wayfinding. PsychNology Journal, 9(2), 137 - 163. Retrieved [month] [day], [year], from

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PsychNology Journal, Volume 9, Number 2